Many schools across the UK are introducing online pre-ordering systems for their students to manage and plan their school meals ahead of time. Not only does pre-ordering school meals benefit schools and parents finances, it positively impacts students' health, whilst also going some way to combating environmental issues. Specifically, the introduction of meal planning can help students make healthier meal choices with their parents and increase efficiency at schools by reducing food waste, informing schools on the correct amount of food to prepare and consequently saving money.

One benefit to children pre-ordering their school meals is that it encourages healthier food choices through meal planning whilst also creating more considered eating habits. Considering that childhood obesity is one of the most prominent health problems challenging the UK, an opportunity to tackle it in schools is very positive. The 'National Child Measurement Programme' (2018) showed that 9.5% of children aged 4-5 years (Reception Year) are classed as obese and this rises to 20.1% when children reach 10-11 years of age (Year 6). Pre-ordering school lunches takes out the 'impulsive selections' that children often make when entering their school cafeteria - choosing meals that look or smell more enticing than a healthier lunch. One study (Baildon, 2019) found that by making these tricky decisions ahead of time, when children were in a more rational or "cold" state of mind, 14% of students selected the healthier of the two meal options presented to them. And for children who don't voluntarily make healthier choices, the pre-ordering method allows parents to have direct input in their child's lunch, which is especially important with younger children who are less educated on diet and nutrition. Taking out the real-time decision making process of what to order also makes for more efficient queuing systems and quicker service.

An estimated £6.1 billion a year is spent by the NHS treating patients with obesity-related problems, however, pre-ordering school meals could be the catalyst for engaging children more seriously in their health early on before it becomes damaging later in life. Schools have found that this process of conscious decision making that students experience when pre-ordering meals creates an awareness and responsibility towards food and their health. At Chandag School in Somerset, the Headteacher saw these habits forming and explains, 'We found engaging the children in the process of planning meals ahead very positive, giving them ownership of their food planning'. Making healthier choices is just one area that makes children more aware of their diet and health.

Reducing food waste is a mountainous task that must be tackled in order to prevent further damage to the global environment and as the education sector creates 13% of non-domestic food waste in England, implementing meal pre-ordering can go some way to controlling waste. Schools in the UK are responsible for creating over 80,000 tonnes of food waste during a single academic year and on average is 75 grams and 42 grams of food waste is created per student per day in primary and secondary schools (respectively) (WRAP, 2011). There are two ways in which schools are producing food waste, both of which would be reduced by implementing pre-ordering schemes; firstly, the unnecessary disposal of food and secondly, the overproduction of food by kitchens.

Firstly, 77% of food waste is 'avoidable' (according to a WRAP report, 2011), meaning that it could have been eaten before it was disposed of (as opposed to spoiled food), the majority of which was fruit (24%) and vegetables (25%). This proportion of food waste can be a consequence of several factors but by using pre-ordering data schools would be able to avoid buying and throwing away this excessive amount of food paired with a willingness of students to eat healthier.

Secondly, in current meal systems, schools cannot gage the exact quantities of each dish to produce. This is because kitchens over-cater to students, in order so that they can have optimum choice, resulting in wasted food. After integrating a pre-ordering system at Henbury Primary School, 'the kitchen reported a significant reduction in waste and the cook [knew] the exact numbers that she was cooking for on a daily basis, taking away the guess-work (Reduce), the Headteacher explains. The lack of ability to properly plan meals does not only waste food but costs schools around £250 million a year (Guardian, 2015), however, pre-ordering systems inform schools on how much food they need in advance based on order numbers rather than relying on estimating.

Overall, the implementation of online pre-ordering systems result in a more efficient meal service. Smarter food production and more cost efficient spending as well as decreasing food waste and promoting healthier food choices for young children.